Researcher

Hazel Easthope

Email: Hazel.easthope@unsw.edu.au

Institution/Organisation: University of New South Wales
Position: Associate Professor
Biographical Information: Hazel Easthope is an Associate Professor and UNSW Scientia Fellow at the City Futures Research Centre at the University of New South Wales. She has qualifications in sociology and human geography and researches in the areas of urban studies and housing. She has a particular research interest in residential satisfaction and the intersections between mobility, identity and home. Much of her research focuses on the development, management, governance and planning implications of private apartment buildings and estates and the lived experiences of their residents. Her interests in this area span property title and ownership structures, estate governance and management, urban renewal and housing redevelopment, building retrofits and upgrades, and resident relationships.

 

Authored/ Co-authored Research

Title: Governing the Compact City: The challenges of apartment living in Sydney, Australia

Published: Housing Studies; v. 24; no. 2; pp. 243 – 259; 0267-3037 (ISSN)

This paper has been peer reviewed

Author/Co-authors: Hazel Easthope, Bill Randolph

Keywords: Development, Equity, Governance, Law, Planning, Redevelopment / termination,

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Summary:

This paper addresses the challenges facing the strata sector in Sydney in the context of current Australian metropolitan planning strategies promoting increased urban consolidation. It argues that the current focus on higher density development is vulnerable to challenges of regulation, representation and termination in strata developments. Furthermore, the increasing size and complexity of strata schemes as well as the existence of ageing strata stock are placing pressure on the strata title system in NSW . The concept of ‘governance’ provides one mechanism for improving understanding.

Title: Strata Stakeholder Mapping

Published: City Futures Research Centre, University of New South Wales

Author/Co-authors: Hazel Easthope, Caitlin Buckle, Sian Thompson

Keywords:

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Summary:

This document is intended as a reference document to help organisations understand the formal connections between the various stakeholders involved in the strata sector and beyond in Sydney.

Title: Governing the Compact City: The role and effectiveness of strata management

Published: City Futures Research Centre, UNSW; Sydney

Funders: This report is based on research undertaken with Australian Research Council Grant LP0989373 with support from Strata Community Australia (NSW), NSW Fair Trading, NSW Land and Property Information, the Owners Corporation Network of Australia Ltd. , Lannock Strata Finance and Macquarie Bank.

Author/Co-authors: Hazel Easthope, Bill Randolph, Sarah Judd

Keywords: Building management, By-laws/rules/CC&Rs, Community, Defects, Disputes/conflict, Governance,

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Summary:

This Executive Summary outlines the main findings of the research project . The project had three major aims:
1. To explore the role, capacity and effectiveness of owners corporations as agencies of property governance and management in contemporary urban Australia.
2. To explore the capacity and effectiveness of strata managing agents as mediators of outcomes for residents and owners in the sector, and their role and function within the overall structure of management and governance.
3. To assess how well residential strata works from strata owners’ points of view.

Title: Home Modifications in Strata: Final Report

Published: City Futures Research Centre 2013

Funders: Leichhardt Council

Author/Co-authors: Hazel Easthope, Ryan van den Nouwelant

Keywords: Building improvements, Repairs and maintenance,

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Summary:

The research reports on:
– Home modification needs in strata schemes identified by residents, peak body representatives and other professionals.
– Existing policy and legislation that affects the process of undertaking home modifications in strata titled properties.
– Challenges in undertaking home modifications and opportunities for change.

Title: Renewing the Compact City: Economically viable and socially sustainable approaches to urban redevelopment

Published: City Futures Research Centre, UNSW Australia; Sydney, Australia

Funders: Scheme – LINKAGE PROJECT, Funder ref. no. – LP130100400, Funding agency – AUSTRALIAN RESEARCH COUNCIL

Author/Co-authors: Hazel Easthope, Laurence Troy, Bill Randolph, Laura Crommelin, Simon Pinnegar

Keywords: Development, Planning, Redevelopment / termination,

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Summary:

The aim of this project was to explore equitable and viable solutions to what has emerged as a fundamental issue facing Australian cities in coming decades: how to effectively, efficiently and inclusively redevelop older areas of privately owned multi‐unit strata titled housing to achieve the higher densities needed to accommodate population growth without exacerbating social inequalities and collateral social disruption. The research therefore addresses questions of both feasibility and equity regarding the termination and renewal of strata schemes.  

Title: Retirement Village or the General Community? Downsizing Choices of Older Australians

Published: State Of Australian Cities Conference 2015

Funders: Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute

Author/Co-authors: Hazel Easthope, Bruce Judd, Edgar Liu, Catherine Bridge

Keywords: Aged housing, Liveability,

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Summary:

Of the 18% of Australians 50 years of age and older who moved between 2006 and 2011, it is estimated that around half had downsized by number of bedrooms. The majority downsized into private housing in the general community and around one fifth into retirement villages. This paper compares the demographic characteristics of these two groups, circumstances leading to moving, considerations made in their choice of accommodation, difficulty of the moving process and their satisfaction with the outcomes.

Title: Urban renewal and strata scheme termination: Balancing communal management and individual property right

Published: Environment and Planning A; v. 45; no. 6; pp. 1421 – 1435; 0308-518X (ISSN)

Author/Co-authors: Hazel Easthope, Sarah Hudson, Bill Randolph

Keywords: Development, Law, Planning, Redevelopment / termination,

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Summary:

This paper makes particular reference to the implications of this debate in the greater Sydney metropolitan area, which raises universal issues regarding tensions between the government and the market and between individual rights and the collective good. This paper argues that there is a case for changing the legislation, with government involvement required to respond to the significant social issues raised, to guarantee the needs of existing owners and tenants are met, and to ensure that high quality, economically viable, buildings result.

Title: Managing Major Repairs in Residential Strata Developments in New South Wales

Funders: NSW Office of Fair Trading

Author/Co-authors: Hazel Easthope, Bill Randolph, Sarah Judd

Keywords:

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Summary:

This document reports on the findings of research carried out by the City Futures Research Centre at the University of NSW into the management of major repairs and maintenance of common property in residential strata properties (containing three or more lots) in New South Wales. This is the first report to outline the attitudes and experiences of strata owners towards planning for major repairs and maintenance in NSW.

Title: How property title impacts urban consolidation: a lifecycle examination of multi-title developments

Published: Urban Policy and Research; v. 32; no. 3; pp. 289 – 304; 1476-7244 (ISSN)

This paper has been peer reviewed

Author/Co-authors: Hazel Easthope, Cathy Sherry, Nicole Johnston, Sacha Reid, Jan Warnken, Eddo Coiacetto, Diane Dredge, Chris Guilding, Dawne Lamminmaki

Keywords: Building management, Developer handover, Development, Redevelopment / termination,

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Summary:

This article employs a life cycle framework to examine the profound operational and governance challenges that are associated with the fusion of private lot ownership with common property ownership. The article calls for a more explicit recognition of these challenges by academics, policymakers, practitioners and the broader community.

Title: Principal–agent problems in multi-unit developments: The impact of developer actions on the on-going management of strata titled properties

Published: Environment and Planning A; v. 48; no. 9; pp. 1829 – 1847; 1472-3409 (ISSN)

This paper has been peer reviewed

Funders: The research reported in this paper was supported under the Australian Research Council’s Linkage Projects funding scheme [project number LP0989373]

Author/Co-authors: Hazel Easthope, Bill Randolph

Keywords: Building management, Developer control, Developer handover, Development, Governance,

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Summary:

This paper demonstrates the impact the actions of developers during the design and build phases of multi-unit residential developments can have on the quality and effectiveness of the on-going management of developments. The findings presented are drawn from a large research project that included interviews and surveys with property owners, executive committee (body corporate) members, strata (property) managers, and peak body representatives about the management of strata schemes in the state of New South Wales in Australia.

Title: The role of retirees in residential “private governments”

Published: Journal of Urban Affairs; v. 37; no. 3; pp. 311 – 326; 1467-9906 (ISSN)

This paper has been peer reviewed

Funders: This research was funded by the Australian Research Council under the Linkage Grants Program (LP0989373). The project partners for the larger project were Strata Community Australia (NSW), the Owners Corporation Network of Australia, NSW Fair Trading, NSW Land and Property Information, Lannock Strata Finance, and Macquarie Bank.

Author/Co-authors: Hazel Easthope

Keywords: Building management, Community, Information available to owners and residents, Quantitative research/statistics,

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Summary:

The article argues there has been a devolution of responsibility to the “private governments” that manage strata schemes, without sufficient support and training. To address this challenge, and realize the potential benefits afforded by the increasing availability of retired volunteers, increased support is essential to encourage better property management and underpin the good governance of urban areas.

Title: Children in Apartments: Implications for the Compact City

Published: Urban Policy and Research; v. 29; no. 4; pp. 415 – 434; 1476-7244 (ISSN)

This paper has been peer reviewed

Funders: Sydney Olympic Park Authority

Author/Co-authors: Hazel Easthope, Andrew Tice

Keywords: Children, Development, Planning,

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Summary:

This article presents an innovative analysis of Australian Census data that identifies lower income households with children as a significant sub-sector of the resident apartment population, geographically concentrated in the lower value middle-ring suburbs of Sydney. An examination of one middle-ring urban renewal site (the Sydney Olympic Park site) provides evidence to suggest that new residential developments adjacent to areas dominated by an apartment market with a significant proportion of lower income families with children are themselves likely to see an influx of these households.

Title: The Rise of Micro-government: Strata Title, Reluctant Democrats and the New Urban Vertical Polity

Published: The Public City: Essays in Honour of Paul Mees; Chapter no. 15; pp. 210 – 224; 9780522867305 (ISBN)

Author/Co-authors: Hazel Easthope, Bill Randolph

Keywords: Building management, Planning, Policy, Public/private,

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Summary:

Paul Mees’ urban ideal counted on watchful, confident and well-informed citizenry to work collectively in a quest for fair and just cities. As such, The Public City is largely a critique of neo-liberalism and its arguably negative influence on urban prospects. As Mees explained it, neo-liberal urbanism was much more than a political aberration; it was a threat that imposed many costly failures in an age overshadowed by grave ecological challenges. This chapter is Bill Randolph and Hazel Easthope’s strata-related contribution to this collection.

Title: Living Well in Greater Density

Author/Co-authors: Hazel Easthope, Sarah Judd

Keywords: Community, Liveability,

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Summary:

In this report we provide a review of Australian and international literature on issues faced by people living in higher density. Our focus is at the level of resident experience and at the scale of the building or development. This review is supported by the input of a range of stakeholders with an extensive knowledge of these issues who participated in a workshop discussion in Sydney (see below for a list of participants). We investigate these issues with regard to the lived experience of residents in higher density dwellings across tenures and forms of housing provision.

Title: Downsizers and Other Movers: The Housing Options, Choices and Dilemmas of Older Australians

Published: Universal Design 2014: Three Days of Creativity and Diversity; v. 35; 978-1-61499-403-9 (ISBN)

Author/Co-authors: Hazel Easthope, Bruce Judd, Edgar Liu, Catherine Bridge

Keywords: Aged housing,

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Summary:

Based on findings from two recent research projects funded by the Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, this paper explores why most older Australians remain in their own homes, why those who do move or downsize do so, into what types of dwellings and tenure, and how they go about this process. The findings challenge conventional understandings of both housing utilization and downsizing.

Title: Downsizing amongst older Australians, AHURI Final Report No.214

Published: Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute; Melbourne

Funders: Australian Government

Author/Co-authors: Hazel Easthope, Bruce Judd, Edgar Liu, Laura Davy, Catherine Bridge

Keywords: Aged housing,

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Summary:

The broad aim of this research was to understand more fully the phenomenon of
downsizing in the Australian context including: the extent of downsizing amongst older Australians; who downsizes and why; what is involved in the process; what are the outcomes; what obstacles discourage downsizing; and what policies could facilitate downsizing where appropriate and desired by older people.

Title: Understanding Downsizing in Later Life and its Implications for Housing and Urban Policy

Published: State of Australian Cities Conference 2013: Refereed Proceedings; 1740440331 (ISBN)

Author/Co-authors: Hazel Easthope, Bruce Judd, Edgar Liu, Catherine Bridge

Keywords: Aged housing,

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Summary:

This paper discusses the findings of a recently completed AHURI research project on downsizing involving analysis of ABS data, and a national mail survey together with in-depth interviews and policy forums in three states of Australia (New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia). Based on the survey findings and ABS analysis it provides an estimate of the extent of downsizing in Australia. It then explores how downsizing is conceptualised in the academic and policy literature as well as in the popular understanding of the older participants in the survey and interviews.

Title: Green Square Community Survey 2014: Final Report

Published: City Futures Research Centre; Sydney, Australia 2014

Funders: City of Sydney Council

Author/Co-authors: Hazel Easthope, Sian Thompson, Nicole McNamara

Keywords: Community, Liveability, Planning,

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Summary:

So that the City of Sydney can identify how it might best support communities’ social wellbeing associated with environmental, economic and social changes, it is essential to collect information about the experiences and desires of residents and workers. To this end, this report presents the results of a community survey of residents and workers in the Green Square Urban Renewal Area in Sydney, Australia.

Title: Green Square Pilot Survey: Final Report

Published: City Futures Research Centre; Sydney 2013

Funders: City of Sydney Council

Author/Co-authors: Hazel Easthope, Nicole McNamara

Keywords: Community, Liveability, Planning,

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Summary:

This report presents the findings from a study of social interaction and social cohesion undertaken in the
Green Square urban renewal area in Sydney, Australia. The study involved the development and piloting of
a community survey.

Title: Navigating a complex housing landscape: University students’ housing options, pathways and outcomes

Published: State of Australian Cities National Conference 2011

Author/Co-authors: Hazel Easthope, Sarah Judd, Edgar Liu

Keywords: Economics / markets, Equity, Liveability, Rental housing,

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Summary:

The impact of housing on students’ wellbeing has recently gained much media and political attention in Australia. The dire situation of students living in overcrowded housing was, for example, highlighted by State MP Cr Clover Moore. This paper presents a typology of housing options available to students in metropolitan Sydney, as well as an overview of the complexities of the student population in Australia. Our typology will assist policymakers and practitioners to target particular housing pathways where interventionist housing policies and action will have the most impact.

Title: MyPlace Green Square Community Survey 2017

Funders: City of Sydney Council

Author/Co-authors: Hazel Easthope, Caitlin Buckle, Sian Thompson, Edgar Liu

Keywords: Community, Liveability, Planning,

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Summary:

Green Square is the largest urban redevelopment project in the southern hemisphere, and one of the fastest growing areas in Sydney. This research aimed to develop a survey tool for on-going assessment of social interactions and social cohesion at a large-scale urban renewal site that could be used to measure the nature of social cohesion and social interaction, identify opportunities/barriers residents face regarding social cohesion and community development, understand wellbeing of residents and workers, including satisfaction/attachment to the area, preferences and desires, and future plans.

Title: MyPlace Ashmore Community Survey 2017

Funders: City of Sydney Council

Author/Co-authors: Hazel Easthope, Caitlin Buckle, Sian Thompson, Edgar Liu

Keywords: Community, Liveability, Planning,

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Summary:

The 17ha Ashmore Precinct is one of the City of Sydney’s largest urban development projects. This research aimed to develop a survey tool for on-going assessment of social interactions and social cohesion at a large-scale urban renewal site that could be used to measure the nature of social cohesion and social interaction, identify opportunities/barriers residents face regarding social cohesion and community development, understand wellbeing of residents and workers, including satisfaction/attachment to the area, preferences and desires, and future plans.

Title: Australian National Strata Data Analysis

Author/Co-authors: Hazel Easthope, Caitlin Buckle, Vandanna Mann

Keywords: Building management, Development, Economics / markets,

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Summary:

This project, supported by Strata Community Association who are the peak body for the strata industry in Australia, provides the first comprehensive national picture of the strata industry. The national (and state and territory) information sheets provide information on the number of strata properties, their value, the demographic characteristics of their residents, and the professionals employed to serve them. The accompanying report provides detail on the data collection methodology.

Title: Making a Rental Property Home

Published: Housing Studies; v. 29; no. 5; pp. 279 – 296; 1466-1810 (ISSN)

This paper has been peer reviewed

Author/Co-authors: Hazel Easthope

Keywords: Equity, Policy, Rental housing,

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Summary:

English-language literature on the relationship between home and dwelling has largely focused on the benefits of homeownership and (to a lesser extent) social rental in
facilitating ontological security. Less consideration has been given to the experiences of private tenants. This paper draws on findings of a study on security of occupancy to discuss private renters’ ability to exercise control over their dwellings in Australia vs. Germany. It discusses the limitations of Australian legislation, within its policy, market and cultural context, in enabling private tenants to exercise control.

Title: Losing Control at Home?

Published: In R. Freestone and E. Liu (eds) Place and Placelessness Revisited, Routledge: New York, 108-119.

This paper has been peer reviewed

Author/Co-authors: Hazel Easthope

Keywords: Home ownership, Liveability, Policy, Rental housing, Sociology,

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Summary:

Two significant changes in housing patterns have impacted on the ability of people to become attached to, and identify with, their dwelling because of tensions between these ways of living and dominant cultural representations of the dwelling as home. These are an increase in multi-unit property ownership and long-term private renting. However these phenomena need not necessarily result in people feeling less attached to their dwellings if dominant social norms and constructs of the dwelling as home, and home ownership in particular, are challenged.

Title: Rethinking Housing Solutions: Adaptive Redesign Approaches for Ageing Apartment Buildings

Published: CONFERENCE: FUTURE HOUSING: GLOBAL CITIES AND REGIONAL PROBLEMS Architecture_MPS; Swinburne University of Technology Melbourne: 09—10 June, 2016

Author/Co-authors: Hazel Easthope, Sandra Loschke

Keywords: Architecture, Building improvements, Design, Development, Redevelopment / termination, Sustainability,

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Summary:

A raft of challenges face multi-unit residential housing design, at the forefront of which is a triad of interrelated needs – to make dwellings more economically, socially and environmentally sustainable. To date, this discussion has primarily focused on the provision of high quality new housing. However, the existing housing stock offers rich opportunities for creating more liveable, affordable, and environmentally-friendly solutions, which remain largely underexplored in Australia. In this paper we explore the opportunities of what we term “adaptive redesign” of existing multi-owned housing.

Title: Postproduced: How Adaptive Redesign and Participatory Approaches can Transform Ageing Housing

Published: In G. Cairns, G. Artopoulos and K. Day (eds) From Conflict to Inclusion in Housing: Interaction of communities, residents and activists, London: UCL Press, pp. 71-86.

This paper has been peer reviewed

Author/Co-authors: Hazel Easthope, Sandra Loschke

Keywords: Architecture, Building improvements, Design, Development, Redevelopment / termination, Sustainability,

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Summary:

Cities around the world are struggling to provide adequate housing for growing populations. Concurrently, the significant amount of housing stock built during the post-war housing boom (1950–80) is now ageing and in need of repair. To date, the discussion surrounding both issues – growth and redevelopment – has primarily focused on the provision of new housing, predominantly multiunit apartments for medium-to high-density living. However, much existing housing stock offers rich opportunities for creating more liveable, affordable and sustainable solutions.

Title: Collective responsibility in Strata Apartments

Published: In E. Altmann & M. Gabriel (eds) Multi-Owned Property in the Asia-Pacific Region: Rights, Restrictions and Responsibilities, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

Author/Co-authors: Hazel Easthope, Bill Randolph

Keywords: Building management, By-laws/rules/CC&Rs, Disputes/conflict, Governance, Information available to owners and residents, Law, Qualitative research/interviews,

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Summary:

All multi-owned developments are, by definition, owned collectively by multiple individual owners. While for some shared ownership can be part of the attraction, for others it is a necessary evil. This chapter focuses on the experience of strata title in NSW, Australia. Based on consultation with strata owners, this chapter highlights the mismatch that can occur between the responsibilities of owners as members of an owners corporation (body corporate) as enshrined in legislation and people’s knowledge and acceptance of those responsibilities, and discusses why this mismatch occurs.

Title: Experiencing Density: The implications of strata titling for urban renewal in Australian cities

Published: In K. Ruming (ed) Urban Regeneration and Australian Cities: Policies, processes and projects of contemporary change, London: Ashgate.

Author/Co-authors: Hazel Easthope, Bill Randolph

Keywords: Construction, Defects, Design, Development, Disputes/conflict, Governance, Law, Planning, Policy, Redevelopment / termination, Repairs and maintenance,

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Summary:

In the 21st century Australian city, urban renewal has become synonymous with higher residential densities. This chapter discusses: the potential for conflict; problems of building design, build quality and defects and ongoing problems with major repairs and maintenance; strata ownership as a formidable barrier to further renewal in areas that otherwise would be prime sites for redevelopment. We draw on a series of interlinked and on-going research projects undertaken by the authors and colleagues over the last decade looking at aspects of the emerging strata title sector in Australia.

Title: Under-Supply of Schooling in the Gentrified and Regenerated Inner City

Published: Cities, vol. 56, pp. 16 – 23

Author/Co-authors: Cathy Sherry, Hazel Easthope

Keywords: Children, Liveability, Planning, Policy, Public/private, Sustainability,

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Summary:

Governments and planners in the Global North are increasingly faced with the challenge of providing services for growing numbers of families in the inner city. This article explores the actual and projected presence of children in inner Sydney and the pressure that gentrification and high density development has placed on school places. The conclusion of the research is that inner urban redevelopment must include sufficient public space and infrastructure not only for schools in the immediate future, but also for adaptive reuse for other, perhaps equally unanticipated, needs in the longer-term

Title: Weak Tie Relationships in High Density Residential Areas and the Types of Spaces Used to Maintain Them

Published: proceeding of the State of Australian Cities Conference, Gold Coast, 9-11 December 2015

This paper has been peer reviewed

Author/Co-authors: Sian Thompson, Hazel Easthope, Gethin Davison

Keywords: Community, Liveability, Planning, Qualitative research/interviews,

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Summary:

The next few decades will see a significant increase in high density development in strategic centres in Australian cities, if current city plans are put into practice. The social consequences of this shift towards higher density are profound and will have a significant impact on Australian cities’ social sustainability. This research provides insights into how people use spaces socially in high density, and which kinds of spaces are likely to facilitate the maintenance of weak ties. These findings can inform the design and planning of socially sustainable high density areas.